Membracinae Rafinesque, 1815

Synonyms (and unplaced invalid names)
Hoplophorioninae Goding, 1926, Tetiscuti Amyot and Serville, 1843
Selected references
Rafinesque 1815a
Funkhouser 1927f
Funkhouser 1951a
Metcalf and Wade 1965a
Deitz 1975a
Dietrich and McKamey 1995a
McKamey 1998a
Lin, Danforth, and Wood 2004a
Godoy, Miranda, and Nishida 2006a
Wallace 2010a
Overview
Phylogenetic analyses based on morphological (Dietrich and McKamey 1995a) and molecular data (Lin, Danforth, and Wood 2004a) indicate the subfamily Membracinae is in serious need of reclassification at both the generic and tribal levels. The tribes Aconophorini, Hoplophorionini, and Hypsoprorini all appear to be monophyletic groups, each with distinct morphologies and behaviors, however, the taxonomic limits and phylogenetic status of the “Membracini,” “Bolbonotini” (here considered a synonym of Membracini), and “Talipedini” remain unclear. The taxonomic limits of many of the included genera must be clarified as a precursor to redefining the tribes and elucidating the relationships among them (Dietrich and McKamey 1995a).
Taxon images
Membracinae
20726_mximage
1.Alchisme grossa
20748_mximage
2.Metcalfiella gigantea
15401_mximage
3.Umbonia
15351_mximage
4.Membracis
15595_mximage
5.Campylenchia latipes
15413_mximage
6.Tritropidia alticollum
15546_mximage
7.Hypsoprorachis fossulata
16558_mximage
8.Erechtia sallaei, female
15580_mximage
9.Kronides incumbens
15358_mximage
10.Notocera
15299_mximage
11.Cladonota
15272_mximage
12.Aconophora
20938_mximage
13.Membracis adult with nymphs
20742_mximage
14.Aconophora nymph
20741_mximage
15.Alchisme nymphs
27999_mximage
16. Some Central A...
28001_mximage
17. Some Central Am...
28002_mximage
18. Some Central Am...
 
Distribution
Neotropical and Nearctic regions: throughout most of the temperate and tropical regions of the Americas, including the West Indies; questionably introduced to Indomalayan region; introduced to Australian region.
16703_mximage
1.
 
Diagnostic characters
Pronotum simple, globular, or foliaceous, with or without frontal, dorsal, lateral, or posterior horns or tubercles; posterior process entirely concealing scutellum. Forewings in repose fully exposed; claval apex truncate (most taxa) or acuminate (Hysoprorini); apical limbus broad, at least in part. Pro- and mesothoracic tibiae simple to extremely foliaceous. Metathoracic tibiae simple, foliaceous, or distally clavate, tibial rows I and II often with prominently cucullate setae, row III with weakly cucullate setae (most Aconophorini) or absent, all tibial rows absent in most Hoplophorionini (some with setae in row I). Abdomen with or without conspicuous pits.
Taxonomic constituents
Prepared by
Lewis L. Deitz, Olivia Evangelista, Matthew S. Wallace, and Mark J. Rothschild, 9 July 2014.