Membracidae Rafinesque, 1815

Synonyms (and unplaced invalid names)
Cornidorsi Amyot and Serville, 1843, Fairmairella Spinola, 1850, Foliaceae Houttuyn, 1766, Paroristes John and Fox, 1892, Scaptomoraea Spinola, 1850
Selected references
Rafinesque 1815a
Funkhouser 1927f
Funkhouser 1951a
Metcalf and Wade 1965a
Deitz 1975a
Deitz and Dietrich 1993a
Dietrich and Deitz 1993a
McKamey 1998a
Godoy, Miranda, and Nishida 2006a
Wallace 2010a
Overview
Membracidae, the largest and most widespread treehopper family, has 9 subfamilies: Centronodinae, Centrotinae, Darninae, Endoiastinae, Heternotinae, Membracinae, Nicomiinae, Smiliinae, and Stegaspidinae. Although eight of these subfamilies are restricted to the New World, one Nearctic species of Stictocephala (S. bisonia) is introduced and widespread in the Palearctic. The largest subfamily, Centrotinae, has 6 New World tribes and 17 Old World tribes.
Taxon images
Membracidae
15351_mximage
1.Membracis
15333_mximage
2.Heteronotus
7418_mximage
3.Archasia
15296_mximage
4.Centronodus
16225_mximage
5.Darnis
15554_mximage
6.Monocentrus
15388_mximage
7.Tolania
16237_mximage
8.Umbelligerus
20157_mximage
9.Endoiastus, with tending ant
 
Distribution
Afrotropical, Australian, Indomalayan, Neotropical, Nearctic, Palearctic, and Oceanic regions. All subfamilies are restricted to the New World, except for the large family Centrotinae, which is predominately Old World in distribution.
16705_mximage
1.
 
Diagnostic characters
Frontoclypeus flat or convex. Distance from eye to base of forewing usually greater than half eye width (exceptions: Deiroderes and many Nicomiinae). Pronotum usually produced posteriorly over scutellum (exceptions: Endoiastinae, Nicomiinae, Deiroderes, Abelus, and Hemicentrus), often also with anterior, lateral, or dorsal projections. Scutellum usually concealed and reduced, if visible, posterior apex rounded, acuminate, emarginate, or grooved medially. Forewings with vein M fused with Cu basally (share common stem; exceptions: some Nicomia and some Smiliinae). Prothoracic trochanter and femur not fused. Male abdominal segment IX usually with lateral plates discrete from pygofer (exceptions: fused to pygofer in few members of various tribes; lateral plates absent in Anchistrotus and some Stegaspidini). Female pygofer not strongly produced posteroventrally. Nymph with abdominal tergum IX forming sheath around segment X, anal opening dorsal or posterior.
Taxonomic constituents
Prepared by
Lewis L. Deitz, 14 February 2011.