Membracini Rafinesque, 1815

Synonyms (and unplaced invalid names)
Bolbonotini Goding, 1926
Selected references
Rafinesque 1815a
Funkhouser 1951a
Metcalf and Wade 1965a
Deitz 1975a
Dietrich and McKamey 1995a
McKamey 1998a
Godoy et al. 2006a
Lin et al. 2004a
Wallace 2010a
Overview
Dietrich and McKamey’s (1995a) morphological phylogenetic analysis of the subfamily Membracinae indicated that the tribe Membracini is likely paraphyletic. Although a molecular analysis (Lin et al. 2004a) supported the recognition of Bolbonotini as a tribe distinct from the Membracini, Bayesian and parsimony analyses of the data differ with respect to whether the Bolbonota group (Bolbonota, Tritropidia, and Erechtia) or Membracini sensu stricto are the sister group of the Hoplophorionini; also key genera (Bolbonotodes, Eunusa, Havilandia, Lewdeitzia, Paragara, and Talipes) were not represented in this study. A revised classification of the tribe Membracini necessarily awaits a thorough taxonomic revision of its included genera based on sound phylogenetic analyses (Dietrich and McKamey 1995a).
Taxon images
Membracini
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1.Bolbonota
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2. Bolbonotodes ganglbaue...
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3.Campylenchia latipes
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4.Enchenopa
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5.Enchophyllum
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6.Eunusa concolor
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7.Folicarina bicolor
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8.Havilandia pruniosa
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9.Kronides incumbens
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10.Leioscyta
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11.Lewdeitzia lunata
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12.Membracis
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13.Membracis sanguineoplaga
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14.Membracis adult with nymphs
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15.Paragara tholoidea
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16.Phyllotropis
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17.Tritropidia alticollum
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18.Tropidoscyta torva
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19.Tylopelta gibbera
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20. Some Central A...
 
Distribution
Neotropical and Nearctic regions; questionably Indomalayan region. The tribe Membracini occurs throughout the tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, including the West Indies. There is also one questionable record of Erechtia in India.
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1.
 
Diagnostic characters
Pronotum various, from strongly convex with longitudinal carinae to bilaterally compressed and foliaceous with elevated median carina, some groups with median horn projecting anterodorsally. Forewing venation simple, not reticulate; claval apex truncate; apical limbus broad. Pro- and mesothoracic tibiae slightly to extremely foliaceous. Metathoracic tibia with prominent cucullate setae in rows I and II, row II absent; tarsus not reduced.
Taxonomic constituents
Prepared by
Lewis L. Deitz, Matthew S. Wallace, and Mark J. Rothschild, 8 December 2017.