L. M. H. Fairmaire’s Publications on Treehoppers
Although best known for his many contributions on Coleoptera (beetles), French entomologist Léon Marc Herminie Fairmaire (1820-1906) worked also on the insect orders Hemiptera and Hymenoptera. His currently valid treehopper taxa include the genera Acutalis, Aconophora, Darnoides, Horiola, Ophiderma, and Smiliorachis and 177 species.

Fairmaire’s works on treehoppers are available online (either the original or a subsequently reprinted version) as follows: Fairmaire 1845a; Fairmaire 1846a; Fairmaire 1846b; Fairmaire 1846c; Fairmaire 1851a; Fairmaire 1855a [see Fairmaire 1885a, a reprint with the same pagination]; Fairmaire 1885a, [Plates 7-9]; Fairmaire and Signoret 1858a, [Plate XI]; Fairmaire and Signoret 1858b [this reprint of Fairmaire and Signoret 1858a (which see) differs in pagination].

Enter "Fairmaire" in the author search box of the DrMetcalf database to view a full list of Fairmaire’s works in Metcalf’s bibliography of the Auchenorrhyncha.

Carl Stål's Publications on Treehoppers
Widely regarded as the leading hemipterist of his time, Swedish entomologist Carl Stål (1833–1878) described extraordinary numbers of treehoppers: 124 genera or subgenera, 199 species, and 1 subspecies. Even though a couple of Stål's genera later proved to be leafhoppers, 84 of his treehopper genera remain valid today, as well as 135 treehopper species, 2 subspecies (1 being a nominotypical subspecies), and his well known family group names Smiliinae, Smilini, and Tragopini. Stål published not only on various groups of Hemiptera, but also on beetles, hymenopterans, and orthopterans.

All of Stål's works on treehoppers listed here are currently in the Biodiversity Hertitage Library: Stål 1853b; Stål 1854b; Stål 1855a; Stål 1858a; Stål 1858b; Stål 1858f; Stål 1859b; Stål 1862b; Stål 1862e; Stål 1863c; Stål 1864a; Stål 1866a; Stål 1866c; Stål 1867a; Stål 1869a; Stål 1869c; Stål 1870c.

The HathiTrust Digital Library includes W. D. Funkhouser’s typewritten English translations of Stål 1864a (Funkhouser’s translation); Stål 1866a (Funkhouser’s translation); Stål 1866c (Funkhouser’s translation); Stål 1869c (Funkhouser’s translation).

Enter “Carl Stal” in the author search box of the DrMetcalf database to view a full list of Stål's works in Metcalf’s bibliography of the Auchenorrhyncha.

Francis Walker's Publications on Treehoppers
English entomologist Francis Walker (1809–1874) described approximately 361 species of treehoppers; 199 of these are currently considered to represent valid species. Among treehopper enthusiasts, Walker is known for his works on the collections of the British Museum of Natural History (now the Natural History Museum), which holds many, but not all, of his types.

The following links to Walker’s treehopper publications in the Biodiversity Hertitage Library were compiled by Lewis L. Deitz and Matthew S. Wallace in July 2015: Walker 1851a; Walker 1851b; Walker 1852a; Walker 1857a; Walker 1857b; Walker 1858a; Walker 1858b; Walker 1859a; Walker 1860a; Walker 1862a; Walker 1868b; Walker 1868c; [Walker 1870a].

Enter “Francis Walker” in the author search box of the DrMetcalf database to view a full list of Walker’s works in Metcalf’s bibliography of the Auchenorrhyncha.

Note that "Walker 1870a," of Z. P. Metcalf and other authors, is an error for “Walker 1868b” and “Walker 1868c” (here designated to conform to Metcalf’s system of unique identifiers). Based on a published extract, Metcalf catalogued the new genera and species from this work as published in 1870, however, at least two bound copies of volume 10 of the Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Friedrich F. Tippmann's copy at North Carolina State University; also Smithsonian's copy) include an initial page indicating pp. 69-132 were published 7 Aug. 1868 (Walker 1868b), and pp. 133-196 were published 25 Sept. 1868 (Walker 1868c). For purposes of nomenclature, the new taxa included were thus described in 1868 (not 1870).

Accessing the Archives of Early Literature on Treehoppers
Z. P. Metcalf used unique bibliographic identifiers (author, year plus letter suffix) for works cited throughout his catalogues and bibliographies of the Auchenorrhyncha, the insect suborder of Hemiptera that includes treehoppers. Covering works published through 1955, his identifiers were widely used by many subsequent workers and continue to be used on such online resources as the Treehoppers Website and the Planthopper Digital Library.

DrMetcalf and the Internet Archive. Using the searchable DrMetcalf database, one can easily expand Metcalf’s identifiers to full bibliographic citations that provide essential data for locating and viewing the publications. With journal articles, the full journal title, volume, and start page are often key to locating the publication (individual article titles and authors may or may not be indexed in databases). Indeed, hundreds of early publications, including rare books and obscure serials, are now available online through the Biodiversity Heritage Library and other resources of the Internet Archive.

Index to Treehopper Publications in the Digital Library for Pre-1940 Planthopper Literature. Thanks to the efforts of Charles Bartlett, more than 140 references on treehoppers (listed below by Metcalf’s identifiers) are currently available through the Digital Library for Pre-1940 Planthopper Literature: Amyot and Serville 1843a; Ashmead 1888a; Atkinson 1885b, 1886b; Baker 1924b; Ballou 1936b; Barber 1914a; Berg 1879e, 1880a, 1881b, 1883c, 1884d; Bergroth 1915a; Britton 1920a, 1938c; Buckton 1890a, 1891d; Burmeister 1835a; Costa Lima 1932a, 1936a; Crawford 1914a; Crevecoeur 1905a; Dallas 1867a (1954 reprint), 1870a (1954 reprint); Distant 1888a, 1908g, 1912b, 1914i, 1914j, 1916a; Dohrn 1859a; Dozier 1928a, 1931a; Fabricius 1775a, 1798a; Fallén 1826a; Fieber 1872a; Germar 1833a; Glover 1877a; Haupt 1929b; Hayes 1922a; Heidemann and Osborn 1917a; Henshaw 1903b; Herrich-Schaefer 1935a; Jensen-Haarup 1920a; Johnson 1930a; Johnson and Fox 1892a; Kershaw 1913e; Kershaw and Muir 1922a; Kirkaldy 1900b, 1900c, 1901a, 1901d, 1901e, 1902a, 1903b, 1903c, 1903d, 1904c, 1906c, 1907d, 1908d,1909c; Knowlton 1929b; Kusnezov 1829b; Leonard 1933b; Lethierry 1881b, 1881c, 1881d, 1881e, 1890a; Licent 1912a; Linné 1758a (1894 reprint [= Linnaeus 1758a]); Matsumura 1905a, 1936a, 1938a; Mayr 1884a; Melichar 1896a, 1903b, 1905a; Metcalf 1915a; Motschulsky 1863a; Muir 1926a; Osborn 1898a, 1900f, 1904a, 1909a, 1921a; 1922c, 1926e, 1929b, 1935a; Osborn and Drake 1922a; Oshanin 1908b, 1912a, 1913b; Perkins 1907a; Popenoe 1885a; Provancher 1889a, 1890b; Sabransky 1912a; Sahlberg 1871a; Say 1830a; Schmidt 1911b, 1924b, 1927a, 1931b; Smith 1890a; Spinola 1852a; Stål 1853b, 1854b, 1855a, 1859b, 1862b, 1862e, 1863a, 1866a, 1869a, 1870c; Uhler 1872a, 1876a; Valdes Ragues 1910a; Van Duzee 1890a, 1892d, 1893b, 1894e, 1905a, 1906a, 1907a, 1908b, 1909a, 1909c, 1912a, 1912b, 1914a, 1916a, 1917a, 1917b, 1923a, 1925b: Walker 1851a, 1858a, 1858b.

Speaking of “archives,” to retrieve prior Treehopper News items, go to the bottom right of the current “News,” click on “archive of past news,” and use the “find” option (such as "control + f") appropriate to your computer to search for a keyword (subject, taxon or author names) in our archives. For example, this news item may be retrieved using any of the author names listed above or other keywords such as "books," journals," "library," "literature," "publications," "references," "archives," and so forth.

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