Metcalf and Wade 1965a
Deitz and Dietrich 1993a
Dietrich and Deitz 1993a
Godoy, Miranda, and Nishida 2006a
Animalia → Arthropoda → Insecta → Pterygota → Hemiptera → Auchenorrhyncha → Cicadomorpha → Membracoidea
Membracidae Rafinesque, 1815
Synonyms (and unplaced invalid names)
Cornidorsi Amyot and Serville, 1843, Fairmairella Spinola, 1850, Foliaceae Houttuyn, 1766, Paroristes John and Fox, 1892, Scaptomoraea Spinola, 1850
Membracidae, the largest and most widespread treehopper family, has 9 subfamilies: Centronodinae, Centrotinae, Darninae, Endoiastinae, Heternotinae, Membracinae, Nicomiinae, Smiliinae, and Stegaspidinae. Although eight of these subfamilies are restricted to the New World, one Nearctic species of Stictocephala (S. bisonia) is introduced and widespread in the Palearctic. The largest subfamily, Centrotinae, has 6 New World tribes and 17 Old World tribes.
Afrotropical, Australian, Indomalayan, Neotropical, Nearctic, Palearctic, and Oceanic regions. All subfamilies are restricted to the New World, except for the large family Centrotinae, which is predominately Old World in distribution.
Frontoclypeus flat or convex. Distance from eye to base of forewing usually greater than half eye width (exceptions: Deiroderes and many Nicomiinae). Pronotum usually produced posteriorly over scutellum (exceptions: Endoiastinae, Nicomiinae, Deiroderes, Abelus, and Hemicentrus), often also with anterior, lateral, or dorsal projections. Scutellum usually concealed and reduced, if visible, posterior apex rounded, acuminate, emarginate, or grooved medially. Forewings with vein M fused with Cu basally (share common stem; exceptions: some Nicomia and some Smiliinae). Prothoracic trochanter and femur not fused. Male abdominal segment IX usually with lateral plates discrete from pygofer (exceptions: fused to pygofer in few members of various tribes; lateral plates absent in Anchistrotus and some Stegaspidini). Female pygofer not strongly produced posteroventrally. Nymph with abdominal tergum IX forming sheath around segment X, anal opening dorsal or posterior.
Brachytalis Metcalf and Bruner, 1925 Metcalf and Bruner, 1925
Centronodinae Deitz, 1975 Deitz, 1975
Centrotinae Amyot and Serville, 1843 Amyot and Serville, 1843
Darninae Amyot and Serville, 1843 Amyot and Serville, 1843
Endoiastinae Deitz and Dietrich, 1993 Deitz and Dietrich, 1993
Heteronotinae Goding, 1926 Goding, 1926
Membracinae Rafinesque, 1815 Rafinesque, 1815
Nicomiinae Haupt, 1929 Haupt, 1929
Smergotomia Dietrich, 2008 Dietrich, 2008
Smilidarnis Andrade, 1989 Andrade, 1989
Smiliinae Stål, 1866 Stål, 1866
Stegaspidinae Haupt, 1929 Haupt, 1929
Togotolania Cryan and Deitz, 2002 Cryan and Deitz, 2002
Lewis L. Deitz, 14 February 2011.