Centrotinae Amyot and Serville, 1843

Synonyms (and unplaced invalid names)
Centrodontinae Deitz, 1975, Nessorhininae Deitz, 1975, Oxyrhachinae Distant, 1908, Platybelinae Capener, 1952, Terentiinae Haupt, 1929
Selected references
Amyot and Serville 1843a
Funkhouser 1927f
Metcalf and Wade 1965a: section 1; section 2
Capener 1968a
Nast 1972a
Deitz 1975a
Ananthasubramanian 1996a
McKamey 1998a
Dietrich, McKamey, and Deitz 2001a
Yuan and Chou 2002a
Wallace and Deitz 2004a
Godoy, Miranda, and Nishida 2006a
Flynn 2023a
Wallace and Deitz (2004a) presented the first worldwide, higher-level revision of the subfamily Centrotinae, the largest and only cosmopolitan subfamily of the family Membracidae. At that time, the Centrotinae included all Old World membracids (187 genera) as well as 29 New World genera for a grand total of nearly 1,350 species. Wallace and Deitz’s monograph provided: illustrated keys and descriptions for identifying 23 cetnrotine tribes (6 of which were new); a morphologically based hypothesis placing 206 of 216 genera into monophyletic tribes (tribal placements were changed for 108 genera); and discussions of morphology, distribution, biogeography, host plant relationships, ant-mutualism, maternal care, and chromosome numbers. For most genera, taxonomically useful features of the head, pronotum, wings, legs, male and female genitalia, and abdominal fine structure were illustrated.
Taxon history
Prior to Wallace and Deitz’s (2004a) monograph, separate classifications of the Centrotinae had been derived for various regions of the world and no one had attempted a a comparative tribal-level study on a global scale. In his world catalogue of Membracidae, Funkhouser (1927f) recognized tribes only in the New World subfamily Smillinae, believing that knowledge of phylogeny and taxonomy of most treehoppers was so meager that grouping genera into tribes “would make for confusion rather than assistance.” Metcalf and Wade’s (1965a) catalogue documents the classification of the Centrotinae through 1955. McKamey’s (1998a) catalogue documents taxonomic changes in the Centrotinae through 1994, but including changes from a number of references published through April 1997.
Taxon images
2.Gargara genistae
3.Oxyrhachis pandata
4.Multareis cornutus
5.Monocentrus fuscoflavus
6.Paraxiphopoeus gestroi
7.Jingkara hyalipunctata
Afrotropical, Australian, Indomalayan, Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Oceanic regions. Members of this large cosmopolitan subfamily are indigenous worldwide except on the ancient, isolated islands of New Zealand (one species introduced from Australia) and Madagascar. In the Old World the subfamily is especially diverse in the Afrotropical and Indomalayan regions. In the New World the subfamily is most frequent in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. Tropical South America has relatively few species, and native species are unknown from Canada (one species introduced from the Old World), much of the United States, and southern South America. (Wallace and Deitz 2004a)
Diagnostic characters
Pronotum produced posteriorly (exceptions: posterior process absent in Abelus and Hemicentrus). Scutellum not concealed by posterior process (exceptions: concealed by process in Centrodontini, Oxyrhachini, most Nessorhinini, Bulbauchenia, Mesocentrina, Monobelus, Neosextius, and polymorphic in Centrotypus and Sextius). Forewing with clavus truncate (exception: clavus acuminate in Centrodontini); apical limbus broad in most genera; posterior process rarely overlapping forewing. Abdomen with inornate pits, each with associated lateral seta. (Wallace and Deitz 2004a)
Length 2-10 mm. Color black, tan, brown, dark brown, or combinations thereof; often with areas of fine white pubescence; pronotum infrequently with red or orange markings. See Wallace and Deitz (2004a) for a detailed description and illustrations as well as keys and descriptions for identifying the centrotine tribes.
Chromosome numbers
The male 2n= 10, 13, 17, 19, 20, 21 or 23. See Wallace and Deitz (2004a) for further information.
See Wallace and Deitz (2004a) for detailed information on the ecology of the subfamily and its included tribes.
Host plants
Centrotinae have been recorded from at least 105 host plant families. See Wallace and Deitz (2004a) for a list and further information.
Some genera exhibit maternal care in the form of egg guarding. Some genera are tended by ants. Aggressive behavior is also reported among certain groups. See Wallace and Deitz (2004a).
Phylogenetic relationships
See Wallace and Deitz (2004a) for a detailed discussion phylogeny..
Taxonomic constituents
Boccharini Wallace and Deitz, 2004 Wallace and Deitz, 2004
Centrotini Amyot and Serville, 1843 Amyot and Serville, 1843
Choucentrini Yuan, in Yuan and Chou, 1988 Yuan, in Yuan and Chou, 1988
Kaikaia Morris and Dietrich, 2020 Morris and Dietrich, 2020
Leptobelini Yuan, in Yuan and Chou, 2002 Yuan, in Yuan and Chou, 2002
Lobocentrini Wallace and Deitz, 2004 Wallace and Deitz, 2004
Maarbarini Wallace and Deitz, 2004 Wallace and Deitz, 2004
Megalocentrus Yuan in Yuan and Chou, 2002 Yuan in Yuan and Chou, 2002
Monobelini Wallace and Deitz, 2004 Wallace and Deitz, 2004
Sinocentrus Yuan in Yuan and Chou, 2002 Yuan in Yuan and Chou, 2002
Prepared by
Matthew S. Wallace, Lewis L. Deitz, and Mark J. Rothschild, 25 October 2023.